Flight Maneuvers

Control Line

CL-AgDusting

This scale maneuver is for models of aircraft used for crop spraying or dusting only. The contestant should be prepared to document that the aircraft was used for this purpose.
Since the manner in which this operation was performed by full scale aircraft may differ according to aircraft type, and/or crop being covered, the contestant should describe to the judges his intended presentation. Generally the aircraft will be at low normal flight level to visibly perform its spraying or dusting mission on command by the contestant. An emergency dump of the hopper contents may be performed and may be accompanied by a rapid climb to a higher level, to simulate avoidance of an obstacle.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver with scale operation were not called out.
  2. Model does not release visible spraying/dusting material.
  3. Maneuver is not presented in full view of the judges.
  4. Model flies erratic altitude during the operation.

CL-BombDrop

Bombs should be carried in the same manner as the aircraft. A contestant is permitted to substitute a different bomb or bombs for the flight presentation, than was displayed on the model during static judging, provided that the size and shape is similar. For bombs carried internally, bomb bay doors should open, bombs should drop and doors should close for maximum score. If bombs are carried externally they should be securely attached with no noticeable oscillation in the slipstream.
For maximum score the model should perform a bomb run in the manner of the prototype. Example types of bomb runs are:

  1. Dive bomb (70 degrees) with dive brakes engaged with sharp pullout;
  2. Toss bomb at mid pull-up used to avoid bomb blast;
  3. Glide bombing (20 degrees) with sharp pullout;
  4. Horizontal bomb (0 degrees) at higher altitude. Unusual bombing techniques may be used if the contestant can verify them with written documentation. The bomb run type selected must be presented to the judges along with the intended area of impact. With the exception of napalm types, bombs should not tumble end-over-end after release.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver with scale operation were not called out.
  2. Externally mounted bomb(s) wobble(s) in slipstream prior to release.
  3. Bomb run and release not realist for type selected.
  4. Bomb-bay doors did not operate in a realistic way.
  5. Finned bombs tumble erratically after release.
  6. Bomb(s) not falling on the intended area.
  7. Bomb(s) are not carried in the manner of the aircraft.
  8. Bomb(s) drop immediately upon opening of doors.
  9. Bomb run not completed before bomb(s) dropped.

CL-ExtendAndRetractFlaps

If Extend and Retract Wing Flaps is chosen as a flight option then it will require an independent maneuver. If flaps are small in size and difficult to observe in a lowered position, the judges may request that they be lowered in a taxi maneuver prior to takeoff, or that they remain lowered in a taxi maneuver after landing. For maximum points, the flap action should resemble the prototype, i.e., split flap, fowler flaps, etc. During the fly-pass the wing flaps are extended and at least one lap completed before wing flaps are retracted. The model should reduce speed before wing flaps are extended and the model should increase speed before the wing flaps are retracted.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of scale operation were not called.
  2. Not commenced from above High Normal Flight Level.
  3. Extension and/or retraction not in full view of the judges.
  4. Model speed too high for flap lowering.
  5. Model not flown at Low Normal Flight Level for a minimum of one lap with flaps extended.
  6. Speed and/or sequence of extension and retraction not realistic.
  7. No change in model altitude with flaps lowered.
  8. Maneuver not finished above High Normal Flight Level.
  9. Failure to operate flaps when required.
  10. Flap operation is grossly different from aircraft.
  11. Model does not exhibit realistic trim change during flap operation.

CL-FuelTankDrop

Fuel tank(s) capable of being jettisoned should be carried in the manner of the prototype. A parachute may drag a cargo from a rear door. A braking parachute may be deployed on landing cargo, if this was a feature of the prototype. The drop should be performed with the model in level flight in front of the judges.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver with scale operation were not called out.
  2. Tank(s) not securely attached to model, have visible oscillation in slipstream prior to release.
  3. Tank(s) do not tumble.
  4. Tank(s) do not fall clearly away from model at release.
  5. Model not in level flight at release.
  6. Fuel tanks(s) not released in front of judges.

CL-HighFlight

The model must be flown at an angle of 45 degrees to the ground with a minimum angle of 30 degrees to the ground and a maximum angle of 60 degrees to the ground, during three complete consecutive laps.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver were not called out.
  2. Not three consecutive laps.
  3. Not at a 45 degree line angle.
  4. Major error if above 60 degrees.
  5. Major error if below 30 degrees.
  6. Great variations of height during the flight.
  7. Centering varies during the flight.

CL-HorizontalFigure8

This flight maneuver is for models of aircraft that were capable of inverted flight. Aerobatic aircraft and fighters generally qualify for this maneuver. From Low Normal Level flight, the model aircraft performs a near circular inside loop until it is at a 45 degree nose down attitude. The 45 degree inverted attitude is then held until the model transitions into a near circular outside loop, the bottom of which is at Low Normal Flight Level, and continues the outside loop until a 45 degree nose down attitude is again attained. The 45 degree upright attitude then transitions to an upright level flight attitude, at Low Normal Flight Level, and at the same point the maneuver was started. The tops of the two (2) near circular loops should both be at the same height. One horizontal figure eight is required.

Errors

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver were not called out.
  2. Maneuver not commenced from Low Normal Flight Level.
  3. Loops not near circular for 270 degrees.
  4. Not a 45 degree to horizontal intersection.
  5. Loops are not the same size.
  6. The maneuver not finished at Low Normal Flight Level.

CL-InsideLoop

One (1) inside loop should be performed. The model should start from Low Normal Flight Level and perform a smooth, round loop, resuming Low Normal Flight Level at the same point and at the same height as the entry. In the case of models of light aircraft, in which the power available on the full-scale aircraft would prevent vertical maneuvers to begin from level flight, such as a loop, a dive may precede the maneuver, if this was the procedure used by the aircraft. The aircraft modeled may require full throttle entering the loop and a decreasing throttle starting at the top of the loop. Also models with throttled engines or speed controlled motors that require extra power to loop, a power increase may precede the maneuver and a power reduction after exiting the maneuver.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver were not called out.
  2. Track of loop not vertical.
  3. Loop not as per aircraft.
  4. Inappropriate use of throttle.
  5. Start and Finish not at Low Normal Flight Level.

CL-InvertedFlight

This flight maneuver is for models of aircraft that were designed for inverted flight. Aerobatic aircraft and fighters usually qualify for this maneuver. After two (2) upright laps following the prior maneuver, the model may enter inverted flight. The model should make three (3) smooth, stable laps in an inverted position at Normal Flight Level height before recovering to upright flight at Normal Flight Level. Inverted height should remain constant for optimum points.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver were not called out.
  2. Less than three (3) laps.
  3. Not smooth and stable.
  4. Variations in height.

CL-Landing

Except for Taxi option, this is the last flying maneuver performed. The Landing maneuver will start from above High Normal Flight Level, the model smoothly descends while throttling back and extending the flaps (when applicable). ½ A scale is an exception and requires at least one engine not running at touch down. Landing gear extension should be initiated just before landing (when applicable). A model may make a three-point landing or may touch the main wheels first and gently lower the tail wheel or nose wheel as speed decreases. The model should touch down smoothly with no bouncing, and then roll to a complete stop without intervention by the helper.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver were not called out.
  2. Landing maneuver not commenced from above High Normal Flight Level.
  3. Not a smooth descent down to the touchdown point.
  4. Gear/flaps not lowered in correct positions.
  5. Excessive use of throttle.
  6. Model too fast, not correct approach configuration.
  7. Model bounces on touch down.
  8. Model does not come to a gradual and smooth stop after landing.
  9. Engine(s)/motor(s) stop(s) before the landing maneuver is finished.

CL-Lazy8

Starting at Low Normal Flight Level, climb to 30 degrees then dive to Low Normal Flight Level. The climbing turn is then immediately repeated in the other half of the circle and finished in front of the judges at Low Normal Flight Level. This maneuver is for all types of aircraft.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver were not called out.
  2. The maneuver not started, dive ended or maneuver finished, at Low Normal Flight Level.
  3. The climbing turn not to high flight level of 30 degrees.
  4. The second climbing turn not a copy of the first.
  5. The maneuver not centered in front of the judges.

CL-LevelFlight

The first maneuver after takeoff is ten level laps. There must be at least two (2) laps after takeoff before Level Flight maneuver is started, except for 1/2A scale which has one (1) lap. The quality of Level Flight should affect the score for Realism in Flight. The model should be flown as level as possible. If model touches ground during the ten laps this maneuver is terminated and number of full laps flown determines the score. Other options that involve level flight many not be performed during Level Flight.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver were not called out.
  2. Model flight path was not smooth and steady.

CL-OverShoot

From above High Normal Flight Level, model reduces speed and extends flaps, then landing gear, as applicable to the aircraft. The model descends to a height between two (2) to four (4) feet and continues for at least one (1) quarter of lap along the flight path before it picks up speed and climbs to above High Normal Flight Level while retracting landing gear and then flaps to finish. Flaps and/or landing gear extension are not required for fixed gear, flap-less, profile scale or fun scale models.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver were not called out.
  2. Descent not commenced from above High Normal Flight Level.
  3. Throttle, gear and flaps not operated smoothly during descent.
  4. The model did not accelerate smoothly before climbing out.
  5. The maneuver not finished at High Normal Flight Level.

CL-ParachuteDrop

A parachute drop, or ejection, should be performed in the manner of the prototype. Cargo should be dropped via doors, hatch, bomb bay, or from wing mounts. A man or men should be dropped via doors, hatch (if the aircraft was so equipped), or by inverting the model. A single seat aircraft may not drop its pilot. The drop zone shall be a spot, or area, agreed upon with the judges.

Faults

  1. Beginning & ending of maneuver were not called out.
  2. Not a realistic way of dropping or ejecting the parachute.
  3. Parachute does not open.
  4. Parachute does not fall clear of aircraft.
  5. Braking parachute rotates after deployment and tangles its rigging lines.
  6. Parachute is emitted from the aircraft in a manner not typical of the prototype.
  7. The parachute with cargo not dropped at the agreed upon spot or area.

CL-RetractGear

The extending and raising of landing gear must be performed as an independent maneuver. The model should be slowed and descending before extending and accelerate during climb out, after retracting the Landing Gear. Landing Gear is extended and then at least one lap should be completed before Landing Gear is retracted. Gear extension should commence when the model descends through High Normal Flight Level. The speed of gear operation and its action should approximate that of the aircraft. For example, “snap action’’ gear should be downgraded, but the model should not be expected to duplicate the cycle time of the aircraft. Similarly, if on the aircraft the gear folded inward (towards the aircraft center line), points would be deducted if on the model the gear folded outward. Models of aircraft with retractable tail wheels should be downgraded if the tail wheel of the model does not retract. Retraction should commence from Low Normal Flight Level.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of scale operation were not called out.
  2. One or more landing gears fail to retract or extend (includes tail wheel, if this was retracted on aircraft).
  3. Landing gear sequence is of the “snap up” action or moves too slowly.
  4. Landing gear action is grossly different from aircraft.
  5. Landing gear extends, or partially extends, during maneuvers that create high positive centrifugal force on the model.
  6. One or more landing gear leg(s) collapse during landing.
  7. Speed was not reduced prior to lowering landing gear.
  8. Landing gear was not retracted during, or immediately after, climb out.
  9. Gear doors, if present, did not activate realistically.

CL-TakeOff

The model must stand still on the ground with engine(s)/motor(s) running and without being held by a helper or stooge, except for ½ A Scale. The flaps are positioned at the takeoff angle (when applicable). As the throttle or motor speed is advanced, the model should roll smoothly at an increasing realistic speed along the ground, then rise smoothly into the air, followed by a gradual climb to and smooth leveling off above High Normal Flight Level. Landing gear is retracted upon lift off (when applicable). As the model reaches Normal Flight Level, the flaps are retracted (when applicable). The type and length of takeoff run and the angle of climb should correspond to the modeled aircraft. Distances for takeoff are suggested and may differ based on local site conditions and scale of the model.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver were not called out.
  2. The unassisted model does not remain stationary at the start of the maneuver.
  3. Takeoff acceleration and roll not smooth.
  4. Tail wheel or nose wheel not lifting off correctly.
  5. Climb erratic.
  6. Climb not consistent with aircraft.
  7. Level off not smooth.
  8. Level off not above High Normal Flight Level.

CL-Taxi

The taxi demonstration shall be executed only after the mandatory Landing is complete. The model must land with the engine(s)/motor(s) running, come to a complete stop without being held by a helper, and must taxi for a minimum of one (1) lap at a realistic speed and in a realistic manner. The model must then come to a complete stop, preferably at the same point as the commencement of the operation, without intervention by a helper. Models of multi-engine motor aircraft may shut down one or more engine(s) /motor(s) during taxi if that was normal for the modeled aircraft.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver were not called out.
  2. Taxi not completing the full circle.
  3. Not a realistic taxi of the aircraft.
  4. Not all engines/motors operating, except for multi-engine motor model which may shut down one (1) or more engine(s)/motor(s) as part of a realistic taxi of the aircraft.

CL-TorpedoDrop

For maximum points, a torpedo drop should be performed as a part of a torpedo run at low altitude. Actual altitude of the model at release would depend on its scale and type, but it should be low enough to enable the torpedo to strike the ground in a relatively flat attitude. Release should be performed with the model in a level attitude and followed by a rapid climb.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of scale operation were not called out.
  2. Release is not preceded by a straight run.
  3. Torpedo not released in front of judges.
  4. Model is too high at release.
  5. Torpedo does not hit flat.
  6. There is no rapid climb out.

CL-TouchAndGo

The purpose of touch-and-go landings with full-scale aircraft is to teach pilots how to land and take off. The landing is not complete until the model is rolling on all wheels and tail skid (if applicable) and is under complete ground control by the pilot (steerable tail wheel, tail skid or nose wheel operating). The landing must roll with appropriate wheels and skid in ground contact for a distance of one eighth (1/8) to one quarter (1/4) of the circle. The model should land normally and take off again without coming to a stop. Precision and smoothness of landing and takeoff will be judged.
From above High Normal Flight Level, the model smoothly descends while throttling back and extending the flaps (when applicable). Landing gear extension should be initiated just before landing (when applicable). A tail wheel or skid-type airplane should have the tail wheel or skid on the ground prior to takeoff. A nose wheel-type aircraft should have the nose wheel on the ground prior to takeoff. Immediately after takeoff the landing gear retraction should be initiated (when applicable). As speed increases the flaps are retracted to takeoff position and then fully (when applicable). The model will finish at above Normal Flight Level. Flaps and/or landing gear extension or retraction are not required for profile or fun scale models or models of aircraft with fixed landing gear.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver were not called out.
  2. Descent not commenced from above High Normal Flight Level.
  3. Throttle, gear and flaps not operated smoothly during the descent.
  4. Model bounces on touch down and the continuing roll on the ground.
  5. Nose wheel or tail skid did not make normal rolling/sliding contact with ground.
  6. The roll on the ground is less than five lengths of the model.
  7. Throttle, gear and flaps not operated smoothly during the ascent.
  8. Not a normal take-off and climb-out through High Normal Flight Level.

CL-WingOver

Starting at Low Normal Level Flight, the model should make a near-vertical climb, pass nearly over the pilot’s head, dive and then resume Low Normal Flight Level. The radius in the pull-up and the pull-out should be of equal size. The line of flight during the wing-over should bisect the ground circle. Low powered aircraft types would be expected to execute a shallow dive at full throttle in order to pick up speed before commencing the maneuver. One wing-over is required.

Faults

  1. Beginning and ending of maneuver were not called out.
  2. Not commenced from Low Normal Flight Level.
  3. Not sufficiently steep climb (less than 60 degrees will score zero).
  4. Not sufficiently vertical dive (less than 60 degrees will score zero).
  5. Not equal shape in the pull-up and the pull-out.
  6. The maneuver was not finished at Low Normal Flight Level.

Radio Control

chandelle

From a straight and level flight the model aircraft passes the judges and then performs a 180° climbing turn in a direction away from the judges, resuming straight and level flight on the opposite heading. The rate of climb should be commensurate with that of the prototype. This maneuver is for non-aerobatic prototypes only.

Faults:

  1. Turn not smooth and continuous.
  2. Climb not smooth and continuous.
  3. Half height gain not at 90° position.
  4. Excessive/unrealistic engine power used to achieve the climb.
  5. Insignificant height gain.
  6. Start and finish not centered on judges’ position.
  7. Entry and exit paths not parallel with the judges’ line.
  8. Final track not 180 degrees opposite to entry.
  9. Entry and exit not in straight and level flight.
  10. Too far away or too high.

CircleDeath

The Circle Of Death was flown by the Soviet Air Force in WWII on the Eastern Front. The maneuver rational is to keep a constant rate of fire on a German tank column. The aircraft would attack in a circle flying in behind the tanks to penetrate the back side of the Tigers. By the whole squadron attacking at once they could keep at least one plane’s guns on the column either until it was destroyed or all ammunition stores including 37 mm cannon and bombs had been expended and then they returned home.

The aircraft should fly in a level circle dropping bombs on the tank column while flying low over the battle field. For a scale model to be flying this maneuver they must fly low over the “battlefield” and drop bombs directly in front of the judges on the first pass. Continuing on into a second 360 degree circle, the aircraft comes back to “target” and drops more bombs on the target then flies back home to maneuver completion. This maneuver has been flown in FAI international competition by the FAI Technical Secretary Bob Underwood.

Faults:

  1. Failing to maintain consistently low (20′ to 30′) altitude.
  2. Failing to drop bombs directly in front of judges on to make believe target.
  3. Unequal halves of circle left  & right of “target”.

Cuban8

Model aircraft pulls up into a circular inside loop until 45° nose down. The 45° inverted flight is held until a half roll when abeam the judges, 45° upright then held until entry height is achieved when a similar circular inside loop is flown to repeat the maneuver in the opposite direction. Straight and level recovery is to be at the same height as the original entry. Throttle may be closed at the top of each loop, as appropriate to subject type, and reopened during each descent. A low powered aircraft would be expected to execute a shallow dive at full throttle in order to pick up speed before commencing the maneuver.

Faults:

  1. Maneuver not performed in a constant vertical plane that is parallel with the judges’ line.
  2. Loops are not circular.
  3. Loops are not the same size.
  4. Half rolls are not centered on the judges’ position.
  5. 45º descent paths not achieved.
  6. Model aircraft does not exit maneuver at same height as entry.
  7. Model aircraft does not resume straight and level flight on same track as entry.
  8. Inappropriate use of throttle.
  9. Size and speed of loops not in manner of prototype.
  10. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

Decend360

 

Commencing from straight and level flight, the model aircraft performs a gentle 360 degree descending circle over the landing area, in a direction away from the judges, at a constant low throttle setting. Maneuver terminates at a maximum height of 6 meters, resuming straight and level flight on the same path.

Faults:

  1. Rate of descent not constant.
  2. Descent too steep.
  3. Throttle setting not constant or low enough.
  4. Circle misshapen.
  5. No significant loss of height.
  6. Model aircraft does not descend to 6 meters or below.
  7. Circle not centered on judges’ position.
  8. Entry and exit paths not parallel with the judges’ line.
  9. Start and finish not called in straight and level flight.
  10. Too far away, too close.

DerryTurn

The model approaches at a high speed in straight and level flight on a line parallel with the judge’s line. The model aircraft then makes a steep (in excess of 60° bank) one quarter circle turn in a direction away from the judges, without loosing height. When centered in front of the judges the model aircraft makes a half roll in the same rolling direction as the entry, again directly followed by a steep one quarter circle turn in the opposite direction, and then flies off straight and level on a line parallel with that of the entry to the maneuver. The maneuver should be smooth and continuous.

Faults:

  1. Entry not in parallel with the judges’ line.
  2. The maneuver not centered in front of the judges.
  3. The rolling maneuver in front of the judges not axial.
  4. The roll in center not in the same direction as the entry to the maneuver.
  5. The roll not carried out on a line directly away from the judges.
  6. Any hesitation between the end of the first quarter turn, the roll and/or the start of the second turn.
  7. Exit not parallel with entry.
  8. Significant height difference during the maneuver.
  9. The maneuver misshapen as seen as part of a figure eight.
  10. The maneuver is executed too low or too high to be easily judged.

FlightStraight

Model aircraft approaches in straight flight at a constant height not exceeding 6 meters for a minimum distance of 100 meters, then climbs away. This is in effect a low fly past and may only be nominated for non-aerobatic prototypes.

Faults

  1. Not a straight course (slight corrections acceptable with light aircraft).
  2. Not constant height.
  3. Not 6 meters or below.
  4. Not pass over the landing area.
  5. Not centered on judges’ position.
  6. Not parallel with the judges’ line.
  7. Too short distance (too long is not an error).
  8. Model aircraft flight path not steady.
  9. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

FlightRectangle

The model aircraft approaches in straight level flight to a point directly in front of the judges. It then continues for a minimum of 75 meters before it turns away to track 90º from the judges’ line and flies straight and level for a minimum of 150 meters before turning to track parallel with the judges’ line for a further minimum of 75 meters. It then turns to track directly towards the judges for a minimum of 150 meters, to a point in front of the judges, before completing a final turn to intercept the original entry track. This maneuver describes a rectangle over the ground. This option may only be nominated for non-aerobatic aircraft.

Faults:

  1. Not commenced and finished at points equidistant from the judges.
  2. Model aircraft changes height.
  3. Rate of turn at corners not constant or corners not 90°.
  4. Legs are not straight.
  5. Legs too long or too short.
  6. Opposite sides of rectangle are not of equal length.
  7. Correction for drift not properly made.
  8. Final leg of rectangle not centered on judges’ position.
  9. Start and finish tracks not the same.
  10. Start and finish tracks not parallel with judges’ line.
  11. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

FlightTriangle

The model approaches in a straight and level flight to a point directly in front of the judges. It then turns away to track 60º away from the judges’ line. It then flies straight and level for a minimum of 150 meters, turns to track parallel with the judges’ line, flies a further minimum of 150 meters, then turns to track towards the judges and flies a further minimum of 150 meters to a position above the center of the landing area, which completes an equilateral triangle (i.e. a triangle with sides of equal length and angles of 60°), before making a final turn to intercept the original entry track. This option may only be nominated for non-aerobatics aircraft.

Faults:

  1. Not commenced and finished at points equidistant from the judges.
  2. Model aircraft changes height.
  3. Rate of turn at corners not constant or inside corners of triangle not 60°.
  4. Sides of the triangle are not straight.
  5. Sides of triangle are not equal lengths.
  6. Sides of the triangle are too long or too short.
  7. Apex of triangle not centered on judges’ position.
  8. Correction for drift not properly made.
  9. Start and finish tracks not the same.
  10. Start and finish tracks not parallel with judges’ line.
  11. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

FlyPast

Model aircraft should make a straight and level flight of at least 100 meters length centered on the judges’ position.

Faults

  1. Not a straight course (slight corrections are acceptable with a light aircraft)
  2. Not constant height.
  3. Not pass over the landing area.
  4. Not centered on judges’ position.
  5. Not parallel with the judges’ line.
  6. Too short a distance (too long is not an error).
  7. Model aircraft flight path not smooth and steady.
  8. Too far away, too close, too high, too low.

Figure8

The model aircraft approaches in straight and level flight on a line parallel with the judges’ line, and then a one quarter circle turn is made in a direction away from the judges’ line. This is followed by a 360-degree turn in the opposite direction, followed by a 270-degree turn in the first direction, completing the maneuver on the original approach line. The intersection (mid point) of the maneuver shall be on a line that is at right angles to the direction of entry and passes through the center of the judges’ line.

Faults:

  1. Entry into first circle not at right angles to original flight path.
  2. Circles unequal size.
  3. Circles misshapen.
  4. Constant height not maintained.
  5. Intersection not centered on judges’ position.
  6. Entry and exit paths not on same line.
  7. Entry and exit paths not parallel with judges’ line.
  8. Overall size of maneuver not realistic for prototype.
  9. Model aircraft flight path not smooth and steady.
  10. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

ImmelmannTurn

From a straight and level flight the model aircraft pulls up into the first half of a circular loop (commensurate with the performance of the subject type), and when inverted, performs a half roll before resuming straight and level flight on the opposite track. Low powered aircraft types would be expected to commence the maneuver by executing a shallow dive at full throttle in order to pick up the necessary speed.

Faults:

  1. Track of the half loop not vertical.
  2. Half loop not centered on judges’ position.
  3. Half loop is not sufficiently semicircular.
  4. Roll starts too early or too late.
  5. Excessive height loss in the roll.
  6. Track veers during the roll.
  7. Does not resume straight and level flight on the opposite track to entry.
  8. Maneuver not flown parallel with judges’ line.
  9. Size of maneuver and speed not in manner of the prototype.
  10. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

InvertedFlight

odel aircraft half rolls into inverted attitude and makes a straight inverted flight of 100 meters in length, and then half rolls out of inverted attitude and resumes normal straight flight. A low powered aircraft would be expected to execute a shallow dive at full throttle in order to pick up speed before commencing the maneuver.

Faults:

  1. Half rolls not performed on same track as inverted flight.
  2. Model aircraft does not fly a straight course.
  3. Model aircraft gains or loses height.
  4. Model aircraft does not remain inverted for the prescribed duration.
  5. Maneuver not centered on judges’ position.
  6. Maneuver not flown parallel with judges’ line.
  7. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

Landing

The landing maneuver begins either when the model commences to flare at the end of a traffic pattern or, if no traffic pattern is performed, when the model is at an altitude of about 10 feet.

There shall be no requirement to touch down in a marked circle, but for maximum points, the model should land approximately opposite the judges. An aircraft with a conventional gear (tail wheel) may make a three point landing or may touch the main wheels first and gently lower tail wheel as the speed decreases. An aircraft with a tricycle gear should land on the main gear first & gently lower the nose wheel during roll out.

There may be exceptions to landing scoring depending on physical layout of the runway. Coming to a complete stop is not necessary on short runways. If aircraft were to nose over due to rough surface beyond runway, this should not cause a down grade of score. For waver to be in effect, the model must make surface contact on
first half of the runway.

Faults:

  1. Manuever does not commence on base leg.
  2. Turn onto final approach not constant rate or not 90°.
  3. Descent from base leg not smooth and continuous.
  4. Model aircraft does not achieve correct landing approach prior to touchdown.
  5. Model aircraft does not round out smoothly.
  6. Model aircraft bounces.
  7. Drops a wing during landing.
  8. Touches wing tip on ground.
  9. Does not come to a gradual and smooth stop after landing.
  10. Does not adopt landing attitude appropriate to subject type.
  11. Model aircraft runs erratically or turns after landing.
  12. Model aircraft noses over (note 2 points penalty if only nose-down; zero if it over-turns).

Note: A crash landing scores zero points, but if the model aircraft makes a good landing and then stops nose down towards the end of the landing run, the landing marks that would have been otherwise awarded should be reduced by 2 points.

If the nose down situation is solely the result of the model aircraft running off the prepared area, because this is too short for the particular wind direction, the above down marking will not apply.

Model aircraft with retractable landing gears, landing with one or more gears retracted should have the landing points reduced by 30%. All landings ending with the model aircraft on its back will be considered a crash landing.

Lazy8

 

The model aircraft approaches in straight and level flight on a line parallel with the Judges’ line. When the model aircraft is in line with the judges (the center) a smooth curving climb is commenced which progresses to a smooth climbing turn of constant radius away from the judges. At the apex of the turn the bank should be at least 60º and the model aircraft shall be on a heading of 90° to the judges’ line. The nose of the model aircraft then lowers and the bank comes off at the same rate as it went on. The turn is continued beyond 180º to intercept the center with the wings level and at the same height as the entry height into the maneuver.

At the center another smooth climbing turn, the shape of which should be the same as the first turn, is immediately commenced away from the judges,. The second turn is then continued beyond 180° to cross the center with the wings level and at the same height as the entry into the maneuver. The Lazy Eight is completed by maintaining this height and heading with wings level before turning to intercept the original approach track to exit the maneuver parallel to the judges’ line in straight and level flight. A low powered aircraft would be expected to execute a shallow dive at full throttle in order to pick up speed before commencing the maneuver. The figure should be symmetrical each side of the judges’ position.

Faults:

  1. Entry and exit paths not parallel with judges’ line.
  2. Insufficient climb achieved.
  3. Insufficient bank achieved.
  4. Climb and descent angles not equal throughout maneuver.
  5. Maneuver not symmetrical about judges’ position.
  6. Arcs misshapen.
  7. Start and finish positions not as indicated.
  8. Overall size of maneuver not realistic for prototype.
  9. Model aircraft flight path not smooth and steady.
  10. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

Loop

From straight flight, the model aircraft pulls up into a circular loop and resumes straight and level flight on the same heading as the entry. The throttle may be reduced at the top of the loop as appropriate to type, and opened if necessary when normal flight is resumed. Low powered aircraft types would be expected to execute a shallow dive at full throttle in order to pick up speed before commencing the loop.

Note: Whilst the loop is intended to be a circular maneuver, the ability of a low powered aircraft to achieve a perfect circle will be significantly less than that of a jet or high powered aerobatics machine. A slightly elongated loop by the former would therefore expect to score as well as a perfect circle achieved by the latter, but a grossly misshapen circle would be significantly down marked. This also applies to options involving looping maneuvers.

Faults:

  1. Track of loop not vertical.
  2. Loop not sufficiently circular, commensurate with the subject type.
  3. Inappropriate use of throttle.
  4. Size and speed of Loop not in manner of prototype.
  5. Not centered on judges’ position.
  6. Does not resume straight and level flight on same track and height as entry.
  7. Maneuver not flown parallel with judges’ line.
  8. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

OverShoot

The model aircraft commences by descending from base leg, which may be either curved or straight as required by the pilot. The turn is continued through 90 degrees onto a higher than normal landing approach on low throttle, using flaps if applicable. On reaching the center of the landing area at a height of approximately 3 meters, power is applied to check the descent. After normal flying speed and attitude are attained the model aircraft climbs straight ahead. The aim of the maneuver is to simulate an aborted landing due to a higher than normal landing approach. This option may only be nominated for non-aerobatic aircraft.

Faults:

  1. Maneuvers does not commence on base leg.
  2. Turn onto final approach not smooth and continuous or not 90°.
  3. Model aircraft does not achieve correct high landing approach.
  4. Model aircraft does not achieve correct landing speed or attitude.
  5. Not continually descending until power applied.
  6. Model aircraft descends to significantly above or below 3 meters.
  7. Lowest point of maneuvers not achieved in front of judges.
  8. Not smooth transition of speed & attitude from approach, through descent check to climb -out.
  9. Inappropriate use of flap and/or gear.
  10. Model aircraft could have landed from approach.
  11. Model aircraft does not climb away smoothly.
  12. Approach and climb out tracks not the same.
  13. Too close or too far away.

ProcedureTurn

Commencing from straight and level flight the model aircraft must turn through 90° in a direction away from the judges and then turn through 270° in the opposite direction, resuming straight and level flight on the opposite heading to that of the entry. The maneuver must be commenced so as to place the point where the model aircraft changes from the 90° turn to the 270° on a line which is at a right angle to the direction of entry and passes through the center of the judges’ position.

Faults

  1. Rate of turn is not constant.
  2. The model aircraft changes altitude during the maneuver.
  3. The model aircraft does not resume straight and level flight on the correct heading.
  4. The model aircraft does not change from 90° to the 270° turn at the correct position.
  5. The maneuver is too small or too large in reference to the type and scale of the model aircraft.
  6. The maneuver is too close or too far away to be observed properly.
  7. The maneuver is too high or too low to be observed properly.

RetractFlap

Model aircraft approaches the landing area in straight and level flight at a height not exceeding 15 meters and in full view of the judges, extends the landing gear/flaps. Model aircraft then executes a 360° turn in a direction away from the judges, and when again directly in front of the judges retracts the landing gear / flaps and climbs away in straight flight.

Faults

  1. Model aircraft speed too high for landing gear / flap lowering.
  2. Gear / flaps not extended in full view of judges.
  3. Speed and sequence of extension and retraction not realistic.
  4. Flaps demo only:
    a) Instability when flaps lowered
    b) No change in attitude with flaps
  5. Misshapen circle or not constant height.
  6. Circle height exceeds 15 meters.
  7. Circle not centered on judges’ position.
  8. Retraction not commenced abeam judges.
  9. Entry and exit paths not parallel with the judges’ line.
  10. Entry and exit tracks not the same.
  11. Un-scale-like climb out.
  12. Too far away or too close.

Roll

From straight and level flight, the model aircraft rolls at a constant rate through one complete rotation and resumes straight and level flight on the same track. Low powered aircraft would be expected to execute a shallow dive at full throttle before the maneuver. Competitors should nominate any special type of roll that will be performed, e.g. Slow, Barrel, Snap.

Faults

  1. Rate of roll is not constant.
  2. Style of roll not typical to prototype.
  3. Roll not centered on judges’ position.
  4. Entry and exit at different heights.
  5. Entry and exit at different speeds.
  6. Entry and exit tracks and line of roll not parallel with judges’ line.
  7. Does not resume straight and level flight on same track as entry.
  8. Style of roll not as nominated.
  9. Inappropriate use of throttle.
  10. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

SideSlip

The model aircraft commences the maneuver in level flight by reducing power on base leg, and then turns onto a higher than normal final approach that is parallel with the judges’ line. As model aircraft enters the turn it starts a Side-slip by the application of opposite rudder to the direction of turn, achieving a yaw of at least 20º off track. A marked loss of height must be apparent while maintaining final approach speed. The aim of the Side-slip, if continued, would be to effect a landing in front of the judges.

Before reaching judges’ position however, the Side-slip is corrected, normal flight is resumed and the model aircraft carries out an overshoot from below 5 meters before climbing away. Purpose of this maneuver is to demonstrate a marked loss of height on final approach without an excessive build up of speed or the use of flap. This maneuver may be nominated by all types of model aircraft.

Faults

  1. Model aircraft does not smoothly enter Sideslip upon turning final approach.
  2. Model aircraft is not yawed at least 20º off track during Sideslip.
  3. Rate of Sideslip and descent are not constant.
  4. There is insufficient height loss.
  5. Excessive speed is built up during descent.
  6. Approach track not maintained or not flown parallel with judges’ line.
  7. The Sideslip is not corrected before passing the judges.
  8. Overshoot is not below 5 meters.
  9. Not a smooth transition during return to normal flight and climb out.
  10. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

SplitS

From straight flight, the model aircraft performs a half roll and when inverted performs half of a circular inside loop (commensurate with the performance of subject type), and resumes straight and level flight on a flight path opposite to that of the entry. The throttle should be closed at the inverted position, as appropriate to type, and opened when normal flight is resumed.

Faults

  1. Model aircraft changes track during half roll.
  2. Model aircraft inverted too long or too short.
  3. Inappropriate use of throttle.
  4. Track of half loop not on line or vertical.
  5. Half loop is not sufficiently semicircular.
  6. Too fast or too tight a half loop.
  7. Does not resume straight and level flight on opposite track to entry.
  8. Half loop not centered on judges’ position.
  9. Maneuver not flown parallel with the judges’ line.
  10. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

StallTurn

The model aircraft starts in level flight, noses up to a vertical flight path until it comes to a stop. At which point the model aircraft yaws through 180 degrees, then dives and finally recovers straight and level on a flight path in the opposite direction to the entry. Entry and exit should be at the same height. The competitor should specify whether the turn shall be to the left or right. Low powered aircraft types would be expected to execute a shallow dive at full throttle in order to pick up the necessary speed before commencing the maneuver.

Faults

  1. Start and finish not parallel with judges’ line.
  2. Pull up not positioned to give best view to judges.
  3. Climb and descent not near vertical.
  4. Insufficient height gain.
  5. Model aircraft does not stop.
  6. Competitor does not specify or achieve nominated left / right turn.
  7. Entry and exit paths are not at same height.
  8. Model aircraft does not exit within half span displacement of entry track.
  9. Entry and exit paths not parallel with the judges’ line.
  10. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

StraightFlight1EngOut

Model aircraft approaches in straight flight at a constant height with one motor throttled, for a minimum of 100 meters, after which the motor is opened up and the model aircraft resumes normal flight. (This option is only for multi-engine subjects.

Faults

  1. Flight not straight.
  2. Model aircraft is unstable.
  3. Undue loss of height.
  4. Engine not opened up after demo.
  5. Engine not throttled back sufficiently.
  6. Insufficient duration.
  7. Not centered in front of judges’ position.
  8. Not flown parallel with the judges’ line.
  9. Too far away / too close / too high / too low

TakeOff

The model aircraft should stand still on the ground with the motor running without being held by the pilot or mechanic and then take-off into wind, or as required by the competitor to make best use of the take-off distance available (jet subjects). If the model aircraft is touched after the competitor calls “Now” the take-off will score zero. The take-off should be straight and the model aircraft should smoothly accelerate to a realistic speed, and then lift gently from the ground and climb at an angle consistent with that of the prototype. If the prototype used flaps for take-off, then the model aircraft should also, but this may be subject to the competitor’s judgment taking into account the wind strength. Any flap-less take-off due to wind must be nominated to the judges before take-off. Flaps should be raised during the climb -out after take-off. If applicable, the landing gear should be retracted during the climb-out.

Faults

  1. Model aircraft touched after calling “Now” (zero marks).
  2. Swings on Take-off (a slight swing with other than a tricycle undercarriage is acceptable as the aircraft tail is raised).
  3. Take-off run too long or too short.
  4. Unrealistic speed / too rapid acceleration.
  5. Inappropriate attitude at lift-off for undercarriage configuration.
  6. Not a smooth lift-off.
  7. Climb rate wrong (too steep or too shallow).
  8. Nose attitude wrong during climb (nose too high or too low).
  9. Flaps not used if applicable.
  10. Wheels not raised if applicable.
  11. Significant wing drop.
  12. Climb -out track not same as take-off run.
  13. Unrealistic rate of turn onto crosswind leg.
  14. Crosswind track not 90° to climb out track.

Taxi

  1. Straight taxi out and back typically includes a braked stop before turning onto runway.
  2. Tail-dragger with brakes stops prior to takeoff after using rudder to move nose (l) & (r) during taxi to permit ease of forward view.
  3. Taxi out with 120′ turn back into the wind and hold prior to turning onto runway and run-up for takeoff. When landing, after turn onto taxiway aircraft makes a straight taxi back in opposite direction of taxi-out.
  4. Tail dragger without brakes may or may not stop prior to takeoff after using rudder to move nose (l) & (r) permitting pilot forward view during taxi. Typically, pilot slows, or may slow to a stop, to look for traffic prior to moving onto runway.

Faults

  1. Failure to stop if prototype aircraft has brakes.
  2. Failure to move tail dragger (l) & (r) during taxi-out & taxi-back.
  3. Failing to taxi-back if taxi-out maneuver was performed.
  4. Taxi speed greater than prototypical to type aircraft.
  5. Entering taxi at too high a speed or too quickly after landing.

ThreeTurnSpin

From straight and level flight, the model aircraft decelerates into a stall and commences the spin through three turns and recovers to level flight on the same track as the initial flight direction. During descent the model aircraft may drift with the wind

Faults

  1. Engine not throttled back at point of stall.
  2. Entry into spin not clean and positive.
  3. Not a true spin but merely a spiral dive (which should score zero).
    Note: In a true spin descent path will be close to C of G of model aircraft. A spiral dive is a tight vertical barrel roll.
  4. Not three complete turns.
  5. Start of spin not centered on judges’ position.
  6. Model aircraft does not resume straight and level flight on same track as entry.
  7. Entry and exit paths not parallel with judges’ line.
  8. Entry and exit not in level flight
  9. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

TouchAndGo

The model aircraft commences by descending from base leg, which may be either curved or straight as required by the pilot. The turn is continued through 90 degrees onto final approach. The model aircraft then lands and takes off again into wind without coming to a halt. The main wheels must roll on the ground for a minimum of five meters. Flaps will be used if applicable.

Faults

  1. Maneuver does not commence on base leg.
  2. Turn onto final approach too tight or not 90°.
  3. Descent from base leg not smooth and continuous.
  4. Model aircraft does not achieve correct landing approach prior to touchdown.
  5. Model aircraft does not achieve a minimum ground roll of 5 meters
      (Note: if prototype has two main wheels then both wheels must roll on ground for minimum 5 meters).
  6. Model aircraft bounces on landing.
  7. Inappropriate use of flaps.
  8. Climb out not smooth or realistic.
  9. Approach and climb out tracks not the same.
  10. Does not make best use of landing space available for wind direction.

WingOver

The model aircraft approaches in straight and level flight on a line parallel with the Judges’ line. After passing the judges’ position a smooth climbing turn is commenced away from the judges. At the apex of the turn the bank should be at least 60º. The nose of the model aircraft then lowers and the bank comes off at the same rate as it went on. The turn is continued through 180º to recover straight and level flight at the same height and on a heading opposite to that of the entry. A low powered aircraft would be expected to execute a shallow dive at full throttle in order to pick up speed before commencing the maneuver. This option may only be nominated for non-aerobatic aircraft.

Faults

  1. Start and finish positions not as indicated.
  2. Insufficient climb achieved.
  3. Insufficient bank achieved.
  4. Climb and descent angles not equal throughout maneuver.
  5. Model aircraft does not fly a smooth and symmetrical arc
  6. Entry and exit paths not parallel with judges’ line.
  7. Overall size of maneuver not realistic for prototype.
  8. Model aircraft flight path not smooth and steady.
  9. Too far away / too close / too high / too low.

FAQ’s

That’s the most asked question we receive. Before we begin with that, there is a process you must be aware of if you are going to show up at a contest…and be ready to win! Yes, I know of no reason why a first timer can’t win their first scale contest.

I know, I know, you think we’re just teasing you to get you to read on. Yes & No…Yes, because of the misconceptions about scale contests. No, if you’re not interested…you’d not be reading this far along!
This will provide first time contestants with a simple to follow flight plan for their first scale contest experience.

 

To participate in a scale contest you must write down a flight plan or routine which you must fly 9 maneuvers in sequence. Flight plans are used by the judges to identify what maneuver you are performing. The judge utilizes a judge’s guideline to identify each maneuver and problems typically encountered when the maneuver is performed.

 

The AMA and Scale Masters have different Judges Guides. Every pilot should acquire a copy of both documents as they are “not” identical.

Be your best friend and pick maneuvers you already know how to fly! Most of you know how to fly a figure 8, a straight flight past, and obviously the two primary events in every flight…the take off and the landing. Go to the list of maneuvers at left to find six or eight more which every airplane can perform! Then you arrange these into a flight presentation for the contest.
There are many many more maneuvers aircraft can perform. It is important to fly prototypical maneuvers which could be accomplished by your specific airplane. Do not try attempt to perform maneuvers beyond your skill level, as that serves no useful purpose!!! Relax and fly your aircraft normally!!!
Judges who recognize a maneuver as being non-prototypical will downgrade your score for not being performed in kind to the family of aircraft in which your aircraft model falls.
Remember, you only fly 9 maneuvers each round. You should select maneuvers you feel comfortable with then, practice, practice, practice.